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Simple Slimming Guide

Dieting is difficult. The endless cycle of restricting food is frustrating and de-motivating. And yo-yo / crash dieting can lead to metabolic ruin.

Certainly shedding a few pounds is great for your health, appearance and self esteem. But how do we do that...naturally and feel good about the process?

If it were a case of simply reducing calories (“just eat less”), or the nutritional faux pas of cutting out fat, then surely more people would find it easier to just drop a few pounds each New Year? But people work so very hard on dieting, and more often than not, just don’t get the results. Or they do - temporarily.

Its a fact that a lot of nutritional advice when it comes to dieting is wrong. On a brighter note, changing your view of what makes a diet a diet, can make life a lot easier!

Connecting with really healthy food choices, and making it part of your lifestyle is what it's about! Life is for enjoying, not punishing yourself. Having fun and enjoying the journey is a major key to success.  Make it about what you can have, not what you cant.  Learn to LOVE the right foods, and it can become a permanent change to simply stay at a healthy weight.

So here's our in depth look at slimming....naturally!

 

Let's Get Positive

"Losing" - what a negative concept, the idea of losing anything, weight or otherwise is inherently negative.  And it is not weight we want to "lose", but fat.  So always try to give yourself a "slimming" frame of reference - "I want to be slimmer" is far more empowering than "I need to lose weight"!.

 

Don't Count Calories 

The "authorities" all say cut 500 calories a day, 3500 a week, and you will lose 1 – 2 lbs per week. There are millions of people that have been diligent and disciplined, and followed this strategy for years and years. Yet the vast majority fail. It's like the largest clinical trial in history, it's been a failure, yet the advice remains the same!

Acclaimed researcher Zoe Harcombe (author of The Obesity Epidemic - highly recommended reading) has spent years researching the myths about calories and weight loss. The first reference to the concept she has found is in 1918, and it most certainly wasn’t science based. Yet over the years, it has become the diet industry's favourite adage. Nearly a century later, it still has no scientific evidence. In fact, trials have proven that the 3500 calorie reduction for a 1lb weight loss simply doesn’t work.  Government and obesity organisations themselves told Zoe Harcombe “We have no idea where this formula comes from or the rationale for it.”

We're not going to mention calories any more than this, because calorie counting is an approach to dieting, that for most people simply doesn’t work.  It's what you eat, and when, not how much that needs your focus.

 

Fasting

This is about the most effective and quick way to get slim. It's not for everyone, but if it suits you, then it is really powerful, and you may be suprised how amazing you feel doing this! Intermittent slots once or twice a week may be all you need to do. It's easier than you think, and can really change your relationship with food for the better. Read more about why Fasting is Fantastic Here.

 

Say Goodbye to Processed Foods

Mother Nature really does know best. For many people, this one simple change is all that’s needed. Natural whole foods sounds a simple formula, and it is.

Processed foods often create addictive cravings for even more of these processed foods. - Your body craves what you give it! They are very difficult to digest. They can cause fat storing hormones to rocket. They are full of trans fats, additives, flavour enhancers, refined, non fermented soya with high levels of phytic acid (the Japanese eat small amounts of fermented soy as a condiment), MSG, heavily refined vegetable oils, sugar, (and worse still, artificial sweeteners such as aspartame), toxic refined salt, but often very little real food.

They are sorely lacking in vitamins, minerals and trace elements. That’s why some people just keep eating more and more of these nutrient dead foods, because they simply don’t meet basic nutritional needs. High calories combined with low nutrients sends signals to your brain it needs more food.

The ingredients are antagonistic to good health AND weight loss. Over time, a reliance on processed foods creates too much “toxic waste” in the system and can lead to a bulging belly.

And the branded “diet” foods are often the worst of all - packed with anti-nutrients that hinder weight loss. They provide empty calories, leave you dissatisfied, and craving more foods that keep the vicious cycle going.  Some of the biggest culprits are salad dressings, breakfast cereals and bars, processed meats, tinned fruits, and “low fat” pre-prepared meals.

If it's packaged with a list of ingredients only a chemist would understand, then it definitely wont help you whatever the “healthy” claims might be.

Real food, unprocessed, and packed with nutrients is the best possible foundation for slimming.  Traditional nourishing foods bring endless benefits, far greater than just slimming. And the good news - fresh, natural food not only tastes great, you can eat lots and lots of it! 

100% unprocessed is the goal, but this can be tricky at times, just get as close as you can. If you do buy some processed foods, check labels very carefully, and keep things as pure and natural as you possibly can.  Tinned foods for example vary wildly in their sugar and salt content  (and be mindful theres nothing healthy about the coatings on the inside of tins). It's the “ultra processed” foods that should be kept totally out of the kitchen. And the closer you can get to totally unprocessed, the slimmer you will be.

Sacrificing good food for quick and convenient is an enemy to slimming.  Your talent in preparing food is far greater than any multi-billion pound food corporation, and you can control exactly what's in there!   Cooking doesn't have to take hours, and it certainly doesn't need to be a chore. Planning ahead can often be the key. Preparing homemade soups, stews and curries for example, and freezing some is an excellent use of your time and resources.

A Quick Word on Salt ...

Removing processed foods from your diet means you will no longer be exposed to refined, toxic table salt, and your body will thank you for it.  Too much table salt itself can over stimulate fat storing hormones.  But it's important to remember that life itself depends on the intake of salt, but it needs to be the right kind.  And the right kind of salt impacts in the positive on the metabolism and thyroid, is extremely alkalising and supplies organic iodine in tiny, but useful amounts for the whole glandular system. If you crave salt, you may have issues with adrenal fatigue. The wonderful Celtic Sea Salt will actively support a weight loss programme, not least because of the vital minerals and trace elements  - an amazing 92 in total! 

 

Fat in the diet does NOT equal fat on the body

The notion that it does is flawed, lazy science, and there is so much evidence that proves this is not the case. Low fat diets can be extremely unhealthy, and can in themselves lead to binge eating because they do not meet nutritional needs. And processed low fat foods are by and large high sugar nightmares.

Not all fats are created equal. Some are man-made anti-nutrients. Some are natures perfectly balanced way of satisfying your nutritional needs. And your body needs the right sort of fats for optimal health.

Trans-fats should be avoided at all costs. Some forward thinking countries have already banned them. Yet here, current nutritional advice groups trans fats and good fats into the same category, which they are not.  Trans fats are known to cause insulin resistance, and are enemies to weight loss. They are some of the most refined and toxic substances in the modern diet.

Refined vegetable oils (corn, sunflower, canola, palm and soybean being prime examples), are long chain fatty acids that are hard for your body to break down. They can influence thyroid function in the negative, impacting on your metabolism and should also be avoided.

Saturated fats however are naturally healthy, and in contrast to vegetable oils which go rancid quickly and need heavy refining, they are nutritionally very stable and actually support slimming. They are not stored in the adipose tissues. Saturated fats create energy and burn off very quickly because they are medium chain fatty acids. And they’re packed with essential nutrients such as the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Saturated fats are naturally present in the very best, most healthiest foods, yet have been very wrongly demonized.

You should absolutely choose butter over a low fat margarine any day. (See the article Butter or Margarine? for more on this).

And cheese and eggs can be enjoyed if you're slimming. Natural live yoghurts are also great -  our article looking at the yoghurt industry is here - Is it a Yoghurt...Or a Doughnut?.  Research shows that dairy can aid weight loss, this is in part due to the calcium content, but there's more to it than that. The nutrient profile is complex and plays many valuable roles including supporting thyroid function.   It's interesting to note that children with a good milk intake have a lower body mass index than those that don't.  And animals fed skimmed milk gain weight, farmers have known this for decades.  If you do use dairy, PLEASE choose Organic.

It's actually quite hard to overeat natural fats, try it if you don't believe us!  Large amounts of butter, or cheese, or milk, just don't go down well, or easily!

Unrefined Virgin Coconut Oil in particular is a fantastic weight loss aid.  And it has the highest saturated fat content known to man – go figure! Before Western foods gained a foothold in places such as the South Pacific, the populations were always found to be very lean and extremely - 60% of their calories came from fat, mostly saturated fat in the form of coconut oil. Many research studies have shown that coconut oil has proven properties when it comes to weight loss. Add 1 - 2 tablespoons a day.  It is also fantastic for frying foods as remains very stable when heated and resists heat damage.

 

Carbohydrates

The modern Western diet places more emphasis on this food group than any other. Traditionally, the emphasis was less than any other, and we were healthier, and thinner for it. The healthiest people in the World all eat very low carbohydrate compared to us in the West.

The FSA “Eat Well Plate” is a prime example of putting the carbs at the centre of healthy eating - and refined carbohydrates at that.  A large portion of the image is made up of foods that are far from healthy!  Nutritionally, it is wrong, and this emphasis is one of the major factors in the obesity epidemic.

There was a time when obesity wasn’t an issue,  and weight levels in the population remained constant. Now as many as two thirds of people in the UK are overweight. Type 2 Diabetes is out of control. And when we look to the significant changes in diet that could have caused this? One finger has to firmly point at the switch to high carbohydrate, refined foods (alongside the overuse of processed vegetable oils).

Too much of the wrong sort of carbohydrates train your body to hold on to fat. Carbohydrates can restrict your natural ability to burn fat the right way. Carbohydrates can trigger too much insulin production. And wreak havoc with your hormones.  Carbohydrates can be simple or complex, and it's the simple ones you have to watch. Your body really struggles to absorb them into anything useful, especially if you’re not getting enough protein or fat.

Simple carbohydrates are fast releasing. They are simple sugars. The guiltiest ones when it comes to weight being sugar (the most refined simple carbohydrate of all), corn syrup, bread and pasta from white flour, alcohol, cakes, pastries, biscuits, fizzy drinks, and...fruit. Small amounts of fruit are OK, but fruit is a simple carbohydrate that needs to be eaten with care. The vast majority of simple carbs however are man made, and / or highly processed.

Complex carbohydrates include vegetables, whole grains, beans, pulses. They contain far more nutrients and take longer to digest. Moderate amounts do have benefits, but they should not form the bulk element of three meals per day. Be especially careful with potatoes, they may be complex carbohydrates, but should be kept to a minimum.

Bread has become one of our most staple foods, but is best enjoyed in modest amounts.  In particular the ultra processed breads which are packed with soya and additives, and therefore not good for weight loss, wholegrain or not. You might even like to try making your own bread, really very simple, and it doesn’t need to be time consuming. See the article When is Bread Not Really Bread? for an in depth look at bread issues.

A high carbohydrate diet should be avoided. Refined, and simple carbohydrates should definitely be avoided. And processed foods are the biggest culprits, so here we come back to our first point, if you want to be slimmer, the first step is waving goodbye to over manufactured processed foods.

 

Protein

Is your slimming friend. It's a major component of all the cells in your body. It's packed with amino acids, and boosts your metabolism and immune system. It also helps with hormone balance and regulating sleep. Protein helps you feel satisfied, and helps control hunger pangs because it triggers the PYY hormone. 

We know we said we wouldn’t mention calories again, ooops, but studies have shown a higher calorie protein breakfast, helps more with weight loss than a lower calorie carbohydrate based breakfast. And protein in the morning wakes up your liver ready for the days work ahead.  Increasing your protein by just 10% can yield dramatic results when it comes to weight loss.

For vegetarians, and especially vegans, ensuring adequate protein can be tricky. Legumes, nuts and seeds provide good amounts. Hummus is recommended. If you're going to have soya, please ensure it is fermented (unfermented soya is not healthy in our opinion) and keep to a minimum.

On the supplement side, Chlorella and Pollen are very credible sources of dietary protein.  We especially recommend that vegans enjoy Chlorella, not least because of its B12 content which is very rare in the plant world.

If you’re very active, you need more protein, so bear this in mind if engaging in an extensive exercise programme.

Raw Foods

Some say that raw food is harder to digest. This is not the case. Introducing at least some raw food elements will reap benefits when it comes to weight loss. Raw food cleanses, nourishes and fills you up. This is another simple change that can make a world of difference.  Please note that green leafy vegetables are not recommended raw. If you struggle for ideas, there are lots of raw food cookbooks out there. Barley Grass Juice Powder is a wonderful addition as a raw food element, it makes a lovely refreshing drink, provides essential nutrients, and really helps to beat those cravings.

Lacto fermented raw foods are as good as they can get nutritionally and packed with probiotics.  The book Wild Fermentation by Sandor Ellix Katz is packed with ideas and recipes when it comes to these traditional foods with wonderful healing properties.

 

Are We Grazers?

Snacking between meals is not recommended.  Three satisfying meals a day gives a regular rhythm to your system.  It teaches your body to clearly recognise and understand the experience of hunger followed by fullness (if eating real, nourishing food of course!).  Many advocate snacking between meals, but this never creates a clear cut difference between the two states, and for those with a tendency to overeat, can present a particular obstacle to weight loss.  Three satisfying meals, packed with nutrients and the right macro nutrients, will over time prevent the feeling of hunger soon after eating.

 

Eat Slowly

Good digestion is a foundation for good health. Chewing adequately can make a remarkable difference to this process. If you eat quickly, try to slow down and savour every mouthful. This also sends messages to your brain that food is plentiful and you don’t need to eat quite so much.

 

Water 

Make sure you are getting enough crystal clear water. Your metabolism needs water to function well. Poor hydration makes you bloated and hinders your ability to burn fat effectively.   And for some, hunger pangs are actually the body calling out for water. But don’t drink fluids with your meals. Try herbal teas if you struggle with plain water.  Fennel tea is a natural weight loss aid. And Chamomile is a good addition to your programme for its relaxing effects, and soothing impact on the digestion.

 

Exercise

Exercise reaps many benefits. And you should aim to fit in appropriate amount of exercise for your age and general health status. 20 minutes a day of movement is a good guideline. But even 5 minutes a day making simple changes like taking the stairs rather than the lift, walking to the shops, a bit more gardening for example can reap rewards, and can be easily slotted in to your lifestyle. But find exercise that you enjoy, don’t make it a chore.

If the gym is your thing, endless hours on treadmills is definitely not the way to go. Research has shown that interval training is the most effective strategy when it comes to weight loss. Short burst of high energy combined with slower ones has far greater impact that long steady (and boring!) sessions. For example, 20 seconds as fast as you can go on a cross trainer, followed up by 30 or 40 seconds of gentle speed for short 15 – 20 minute sessions is more effective for loosing weight than an hour at the same speed. And it has great benefits for your metabolism. The approach is very much like the traditional hunter gatherer would have done, with short bursts of high energy, combined with a naturally active lifestyle. A quick Google search for interval training will yield lots of free resources on this.

A pound of muscle burns as much as 9 times more calories than a pound of fat!  And being toned really helps you look slimmer. So resistance / weight training is great for weight loss. and is suitable even for ladies who don’t want to "muscle up" but do want to tone and slim. Your local gym is the best source of professional advice when it comes to weight training. Yoga and Tai Chi are great for both the mind and body, and suit all ages. Try a local class if you find it hard to exercise on your own.

If you work at a desk all day, how about sitting on a gym ball instead of a chair. Great for your back, and core strength, and keeps movement in your day.  Sitting for long periods of time shuts down fat burning enzymes, so a little jaunt round the office every hour for a minute or two can really help.

And if you are struggling for exercise ideas, we highly recommend rebounding, it is very gentle, but very effective and suitable for all ages.  Rebounders are fabulously slimming, great fun, and support the lymphatic system and circulation.  They are not just mini trampolines, they are more resistant to the bounce.  3 x 5 mins a day can really help, you can do more for intense workouts however if you want.

Eat Fast Food

And no, we don’t mean that kind! But we do mean foods that boost your metabolism. Some particular foods to focus on including each week - avocados, seeds and nuts, broccoli, sprouts, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, eggs, turkey, oatmeal (must be unrefined), green tea, cinnamon (stabilises blood sugar), peppers and chillies and yoghurt.

 

Health Issues

For some people, there may be underlying health issues creating a barrier to weight loss (Diabetes, hormonal imbalance, thyroid issues, digestive disorders, food allergies etc). If you have concerns, or are following a 100% natural diet without success, you should of course discuss this with your GP and / or practitioner.

An underactive thyroid (Hypothyroidism) will cause weight gain, but actual thyroid disease is rare. But if your thyroid and metabolism is a little bit sluggish, a Kelp supplement can provide essential trace elements and minerals, in particular iodine that can help. Recent research in March 2010 also found that the alginate in Kelp is a very effective, and natural weight loss tool. Researchers highlighted adding this nutrient to bread (there’s those carbs again) as a method for managing obesity. In our view, taking Kelp in its natural form is a better approach! We mention here again Celtic Sea Salt, another fantastic source of organic iodine in the right amounts.

There may certainly be genetic factors at play for some people. The work of Weston A Price shows us that as diets change from traditional to modern, over time, changes in each generation of families can be seen. Certainly children today can be seen as the processed food generation, but there is no solid research to show how much of the current obesity levels can be attributed to genetic factors. In our view, the reason we have overweight toddlers, is because they are beginning their lives on excessive carbohydrates and sugars (Farley’s Rusks are a staggering 29% sugar!).

 

Sweet Tooth?

Some of us just need a little sweetness in our life now and again.  A traditional healthy diet often overcomes this.  But if not, just keep your sweet treats to occasions.  Honey, especially raw honey is fabulous with plain live yoghurt. Raw chocolate (Cacao) does the job well, and is also packed with healthy nutrients, the best brands are totally sugar free.  And of course a little fruit here and there is fine, but only in moderation as the sugar content is so high.

 

A Note on Organic

In our view, organic produce is definitely best.  Research studies have shown organic produce is higher in vitamins and minerals, and of course lower in toxins such as pesticides and antibiotics.  Your body has a need for a complex array of nutrients, and produce from mineral rich soil is much better for you.

And when it comes to dairy, if you are only going to buy one part of your shop organic, this would be the one.  Organic, pasture fed animals, have far higher standards of welfare, the nutrient content is superior, and is free of the excessive antibiotics used in non dairy herds.  (Certified organic, raw (i.e. unpasteurized, unhomogenized) milk is now available for nationwide delivery from http://www.hookandson.co.uk)  Organic does of course cost more, and your budget will dictate, as will personal preference.  Your local organic veg box scheme will always work out more cost effective than supermarkets.

 

Support and Resources

We all want to feel better about ourselves. And supporting your slimming programme with what might seem unconnected resources can also be a key to success. If your confidence is low, it can be harder to make changes. If you need to boost your self esteem and confidence, there are lots of books and resources available. If you need to, or prefer to, work with a life coach, or similar type of practitioner.  This would be particularly helpful where real psychological issues are restricting the ability of an individual to get slimmer.

Get support from friends and family if you need it. If you have friends also trying to lose weight, work on recipes and ideas together.

Throughout history, mealtimes have been a fun, social affair. Making this something to aim for can be fun itself. How can you make meals special for the whole family?

Do the things that make you happy. That might be walks in nature, gardening, sports, but whatever it is, make time for yourself and the things that make you happy. Factor in "you time" for relaxation.

Research has shown that those that write down their goals are far more successful than those that don’t. So take some time out and focus on what it is you really want. Refer to your goals often to boost your focus, mental energy and motivation.

Goals may relate specifically to being slimmer - make specific plans for this, but also lifestyle goals you want to achieve. Make your goals as meaningful to you as possible. These vary wildly from person to person – more active time with your kids, running a marathon, a fun run with friends, getting into that special dress for a special occasion, learning a new sport or hobby, taking that dream beach holiday, take your pick, be imaginative, but please write them down for the best results!

 

Need a Plan?

We  have a very simple programme laid out on a simple A4 sheet - 7 Days to a Slimmer You meaning you don't have to spend hours reading a book. It is a tried and tested way of slimming naturally that many have found very effective, and just gives you a simple structure to follow. But simply this article and the fasting article give you all the information you really need!

 

What About Supplements?

If you are deficient in vitamins and minerals, this will definitely be a stumbling block when it comes to weight loss. True deficiencies with debilitating symptoms are in actual fact quite unusual. But slight inadequacies are common, with imbalances of micro nutrients being even more common.  And many researches believe slight deficiencies can themselves cause some food cravings.  Your body needs the right nutrients to heal and renew. And if your digestion is even slightly compromised, you will not absorb nutrients to the maximum.  Lets not forget also, that even if you eat a balanced organic diet, our food has up to 75% less vitamins and minerals than 50 years ago.

Certain nutrients are particularly important when it comes to weight loss. For example B Vitamins help fuel the body and create energy. Zell Oxygen Plus is the best, 100% natural B Complex we’ve ever seen on the market. Chromium has a bearing on blood sugar levels and subsequently fat control. Zinc plays a role in appetite control.

Selecting just one supplement from the broad spectrum range OR Kelp will ensure micronutrient shortage is not a problem, they are all packed with vitamins, minerals and trace elements..naturally. They help with energy and immunity, both potent weapons when it comes to weight loss. Pollen in particular will also help control your appetite and is lovely to eat and if you get a craving fills a little gap. Our customers often experience remarkable transformations in their health when they add broad spectrum nutrition.   And if a bulge round your middle is a particular problem, the Supergreen Probiotic™ can really help.

 

Our Recommended Food List

  • Meats and poultry from pasture fed organic stock (far higher nutrient content)
  • Fish and seafood
  • High quality dairy, preferably organic, and raw dairy is highly recommended (certified organic, raw (i.e. unpasteurized, unhomogenized) milk is now available for nationwide delivery from http://www.hookandson.co.uk
  • Fresh vegetables with lots and lots of variation (frozen veg does retain its nutrient content, and can often be a better choice than food that has been shipped across the World)
  • Small amounts of fruit on occasion, and never juiced. We are eating too much fruit, and too much sugar, traditionally, we only ate small amounts of fruit when in season. Grapefruit in particular have an excellent track record when it comes to supporting weight loss. Also see our Grapefruit Pectin Fibre.
  • Porridge oats
  • Quinoa
  • Moderate amounts of whole grains
  • Moderate amounts of whole grain pasta
  • Moderate amounts of wholegrain brown rice
  • Hummus
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Beans and pulses, especially sprouted
  • Fermented traditional foods such as sauerkraut, sour pickles, kimchee, sourdough, bean ferments such as miso and tempeh
  • Liberal herbs and spices
  • Coconut Oil
  • Cold pressed, unrefined oils in moderation (Hemp and Flaxseed for example)
  • Extra virgin olive oil
  • Apple Cider Vinegar (great digestive aid)
  • Unrefined, real salt (packed with minerals and trace elements)

 

References and Resources

Nutrition and Physical Degeneration - Weston A Price DDS

The Fourfold Path to Healing by Dr Thomas Cowan

Eat Fat, Lose Fat by Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, PhD

The No-Grain Diet by Joseph Mercola

The Obesity Epidemic by Zoe Harcombe

Put Your Heart in Your Mouth by Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride

Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol by Mary G. Enig, PhD

Seasalt's Hidden Powrs b Jaques de Langre

Your Body's Many Cries for Water by F. Batmanghelidj

Fat and Cholesterol are Good for You  by Uffe Ravnskov

Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods by Sandor Ellix Katz

Milk fat, dietary calcium and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescents. 2005;159(6):543-550

Should a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet be recommended for everyone? Beyond low-fat diets. Katan MB, Grundy SM, Willett WC N Engl J Med. 1997

The case for not restricting saturated fat on a low carbohydrate diet by Jeff S. Volek and Cassandra E. Forsythe, referenced letter in Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2:21. Quote: "We believe that the recommendation to restrict saturated fat in favor of unsaturated fat on a low-carbohydrate diet is unnecessary and may even diminish some of the beneficial physiological effects associated with carbohydrate restriction."

Removing industrial trans fat from foods: a simple policy that will save lives - Editorial in the British Medical Journal. putting the case for a ban on trans fats as a simple, low cost, effective public health measure. By Dariush Mozaffarian, assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology, and Meir J Stampfer, professor of medicine and epidemiology, at Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Public Health. Published in BMJ 2010;340:c1826, 15 April 2010

Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women - paper in the American J. of Clinical Nutrition, June 2001, by Jorge Salmerón et al. It finds a correlation with dietary trans fat and type 2 diabetes. QUOTE: "We estimated that replacing 2% of energy from trans fatty acids isoenergetically with polyunsaturated fat would lead to a 40% lower risk ... Substituting nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated fatty acids for trans fatty acids would likely reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes substantially."
 
Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in women - paper in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 4, 606-612, April 2004, by Dariush Mozaffarian et al. QUOTE: "trans Fatty acid (TFA) intake predicts risks of coronary artery disease and diabetes. ... TFA intake is positively associated with markers of systemic inflammation in women.

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